This article contains fast facts and information about the Lords Proprietors and the establishment and founding of the American colonies of South Carolina and North Carolina following the 1660 restoration of the English monarchy and King Charles II. Who was Lords Proprietors? The Lords Proprietors were eight men who were selected by King Charles II, and rewarded, for their faithful support in his efforts to regain the throne of England. He granted the eight men, who were called Lords Proprietors or simply Proprietors, massive amounts of lands of the American colonies of South Carolina and North Carolina. The Charter of Carolina was granted by King Charles II in 1663 to the eight Lords Proprietors.
The Lords Proprietors - Background History
The turbulent history of England resulted in the appointment of the Lords Protectors. King James I died in 1625 and was succeeded by Charles I. King Charles I reigned until 1649, when he was beheaded and England came under the control of Parliamentarians led by Oliver Cromwell. Their rule lasted until 1660, when King Charles II was restored to the throne of England helped by many Royalists supporters. King Charles II granted the Carolina Charter in 1663 to the eight Lords Proprietors.
The Names of the Lords Proprietors
The names of the Lords Proprietors named in the 1663 Carolina Charter were:
- Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon
- Edward Hyde (18 February 1609 – 9 December 1674) was an English historian and politician, and grandfather of two British monarchs, Mary II and Queen Anne and one of the Lords Proprietors
- George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle
- George Monck (6 December 1608 – 3 January 1670) was an English soldier and statesman and one of the Lords Proprietors
- William Craven, 1st Earl of Craven
- William Craven (June 1608 – 9 April 1697) was an English statesman and soldier and one of the Lords Proprietors
- John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton
- John Berkeley (1602 – 28 August 1678) was an English statesman and soldier and one of the Lords Proprietors
- Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftsbury
- Anthony Ashley Cooper (22 July 1621 – 21 January 1683), was a wealthy landowner, English statesman and soldier and one of the Lords Proprietors
- Sir George Carteret
- George Carteret (c. 1610 – 18 January 1680) was a the Governor of British Jersey, English statesman and soldier and one of the Lords Proprietors
- Sir William Berkeley (c. 1610 – 18 January 1680) governor of Virginia and one of the Lords Proprietors
- Sir John Colleton (1608–1666) was a soldier and nobleman and one of the Lords Proprietors
The Government of Carolina of the Lords Proprietors
The government in the American colonies of the Lords Proprietors was operated under their royal charter, were gave them the authority with nearly the independence of the king himself. The actual government of these colonies consisted of:
- A governor
- A council, on which half of the councillors were appointed by the Lords Proprietors
- A popularly elected assembly
Governments under proprietary rule and under crown rule were similarly organized. The primary difference was who appointed the governing officials: the Lords Proprietors or the Sovereign.
The Lords Proprietors - Separate governments for North and South Carolina
The Tuscarora War and the Yamasee War, and the inability of the Lords Proprietors to act decisively, led to separate governments for North and South Carolina although the establishment of separate colonies did not officially occur until 1729. During 1729 seven of the Lords Proprietors sold their interests in Carolina to the Crown, and both North Carolina and South Carolina became royal colonies. The eighth Lords Proprietor was Sir George Carteret who retained ownership of a sixty-mile-wide strip of land in North Carolina adjoining the Virginia boundary, which became known as the Granville District.